The Air Medal is a bronze compass rose of 1 11/16 inches diameter. An eagle holding two bolts of lightning in its talons is charged in downward attacking flight. It is held to the suspension ring at the top by a fleur-de-lis. On the reverse side of the medal, there is a space available for the name of the recipient to be engraved. The points of the compass rose are modeled.
The ribbon of the Air Medal is 1 3/8 inches wide and has five stripes. The first stripe is 1/8 inch of Ultramarine Blue, the second is ¼ inch of Golden Orange, the middle is 5/8 inch Ultramarine Blue, the fourth ¼ inch Golden Orange and the last is 1/8 inch Ultramarine Blue.
To be awarded the medal, an evident contribution to the operational land combat mission or to the mission of the aircraft in flight must have been made. Individuals whose combat activities demand them to fly include those in attack elements of units engaged in air-land assaults against an armed enemy and those directly engaged in airborne command and run of combat operations.
The aforementioned activities, usually at the brigade/group level and below, ascertain eligibility for the award, but the measure of heroism, meritorious accomplishment, or commendable service will verify who will be awarded the Air Medal. It will not be awarded to persons that use air transportation only for the means of traveling from place to place in a combat zone.
On March 9th, 1942, the Secretary of War wrote a letter to the Director, Bureau of Budget, suggesting an executive order creating the Air Medal for award to any person who, while serving in any capacity of the Army of the United States, set himself/herself apart by meritorious achievement while involved in an aerial flight.
It was noted that "[t]he Distinguished Flying Cross is available only for heroism or extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight [...] It is desired not to cheapen the Distinguished Flying Cross by awarding it for achievement not bordering on the heroic. It is, however, important to reward personnel for meritorious service."
On May 11th, 1942, President Roosevelt authorized the Air Medal by Executive Order 9158 and established the award for "any person who, while serving in any capacity in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard of the United States subsequent to September 8, 1939, distinguishes, or has distinguished, himself by meritorious achievement while participating in an aerial flight."
The War Department Bulletin No. 25, dated May 25th, 1942, published the approval of the Medal. Executive Order 9242-A, dated September 11th, 1942, amended the previous Executive Order to read "in any capacity in or with the Army".
It was by letter in July of 1942 that the Office of The Quartermaster General (OQMG) gave the opportunity of submitting blueprints for the medal to twenty-two different artists. On December 31st, 1942, Walker Hancock's blueprint was approved by the Secretary of War.
Walker Hancock had, at the time, been inducted into the Army and was stationed at Camp Livingston, Louisiana. On November 16th, 1942, he was ordered to temporary duty to G1 War Department to conduct his work on the medal. The ribbon design prepared by the OQMG was accepted on August 26th, 1942.
At the inception of the award of the Air Medal, oak leaf clusters were used to show previous awards of the medal. In September of 1968, the procedure was changed to demand the use of numbers to show previous awards, as it was soon evident that with as many awards as were awarded, that the oak leaf clusters would not fit on the ribbon.
During times of peace, the Air Medal may be awarded, but the approval authority for an award at this time is not given to field commanders.
Air Medal in the Armed Forces of the United States
The Air Medal is awarded to a person serving with the Army that has set himself/herself apart from his/her comrades by meritorious achievement while involved in aerial flight. The award may be made upon the acknowledgment of single acts of merit or heroism, or for meritorious service.
The award of Air Medal is chiefly meant to acknowledge either current crew member or non-crew member flying status that demands the individual to be involved in aerial fight as a consistent part of their principal duties, though it is also awarded to personnel whose combat duties demand consistent flying in that which is not a passenger status or the performance of an especially remarkable act while in the position of a crew member but not on flying status.