Employee job descriptions are written statements that describe the duties, responsibilities, required qualifications, and reporting relationships of a particular job. They are based on objective information obtained through job analysis, an understanding of the competencies and skills required to accomplish needed tasks, and the needs of the organization to produce work.
Employee job descriptions identify and spell out the responsibilities of a specific job. They also include information about working conditions, tools, equipment used, knowledge and skills needed, and relationships with other positions including the immediate boss.
Effectively developed, employee job descriptions are communication tools that are significant to your organization's success. Poorly written employee job descriptions, on the other hand, add to workplace confusion, miscommunication, and make people feel they don't know what is expected from them.
If you use employee job descriptions as living, breathing documents that are updated regularly to reflect the changing requirements of each employee, these descriptions can become more of a job plan than an irrelevant document.
Positives About Job Descriptions
Job descriptions that have a positive impact on an employee's understanding of their job and the standard of performance that is expected provide the following components.
Provide an Opportunity to Communicate Your Company Direction and Inform Employees How They Fit Into the Big Picture
Whether you're a small or large business or a multi-site organization, well-written employee job descriptions will help you align employee direction with the direction of your senior leadership and their strategic plan for the business.
Set Clear Expectations About What You Expect From People:
Ferdinand Fournies, in "Why Don't Employees Do What They're Supposed to Do and What To Do About It?" says that worker expectation is the first place to look if people aren't doing what you want them to do. He says you need to make certain that all employees clearly understand your expectations—and that understanding starts with the employee job description.
This holds true whether you're recruiting new employees or posting jobs for internal applicants.
Help You Cover Yourself Legally
As an example, for compliance with the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA), you'll want to make certain that the description of the physical requirements of the job is accurate down to the letter. This will assist you to respond appropriately if an employee requests an accommodation under the ADA.
Help Organizational Employees, Who Must Work With the New Hire, Understand the Boundaries of the Person's Responsibilities
People who have been involved in the hiring process are more likely to support the success of the new employee or promoted coworker. Developing employee job descriptions is an easy way to involve people in your organization's success.
Remember, as you develop employee job descriptions, recognize that they are one component in an effective performance management system. Consider these warnings about employee job descriptions.
Negative Potential of Employee Job Descriptions
Employee job descriptions have their downside, including the following:
They Become Outdated in a Fast-Paced, Changing, Customer-Driven Work Environment
You must supplement employee job descriptions with regularly negotiated goals and developmental opportunities, at a minimum, quarterly—preferably monthly. It requires the employee to meet with the boss, or the team, to establish the next set of specific, measurable objectives.
This meeting must also be realistic. If the employee receives new goals and is still responsible for every task listed in the original employee job description, this is unfair. It is discouraging for the employee who never feels they are achieving success on their job.
Especially, if the goals and job accomplishments are tied to salary or bonus, you must take a look at where the employee is investing his or her time. If the employee job descriptions provide an inaccurate picture, change the employee job description.
Don't Always Have Enough Flexibility so Individuals Can "Work Outside of the Box"
Employee job descriptions must be flexible so that employees are comfortable cross-training. They must enable another team member to accomplish a task and the employee to have the confidence that they can make appropriate decisions to serve their customers. You want to develop people who are comfortable taking reasonable chances to stretch their limits.
Don't Always Provide a Review of an Employee's Day-To-Day Work
In addition to the updating of regular goals and objectives suggested, employee job descriptions are an integral part of the performance management and evaluation system. They are used to determine salary increases and bonus eligibility.
They are a job reference for determining how an employee spends her time at work on a daily basis. They provide a measurable focus for an employee's energy and attention.
Can Sit Unused in a Drawer and Therefore Are a Waste of Time
Employee job descriptions must be integral in your hiring selection process. If you fail to use the job descriptions you develop in your feedback and performance management sessions, the whole process has been a waste of your time and energy. In today's fast-paced organizations, who has time for that?
The Bottom Line
You can use employee job descriptions to obtain employee ownership and to trace the parameters of the skills and abilities you seek for the position. When hiring, well-written employee job descriptions can help you make sound hiring decisions. And hiring the right team is critical to your future success.