The Badge of Military Merit was created by General George Washington on 7 August 1792. After the Revolutionary War, the American people had little or no use for decorations, as such, as they appeared to relate to European royalty too closely, and the Badge fell into disuse. However, the Civil War with its severe fighting and deeds of valor revealed the need for such valor to be recognized. An authorization for the medal for the Army was introduced into Legislation in the Senate on 17 February 1862. This gave the Army authorization for the medal and followed a pattern of an award approved for Naval persons in December 1861. It was Resolved that: "The President of the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to cause two thousand "medals of honor" to be prepared with suitable emblematic devices, and to direct that the same be presented, in the name of Congress, to such noncommissioned officers and privates as shall most distinguish themselves by their gallantry in action, and other soldier-like qualities during the present insurrection, and the sum of ten thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby appropriated out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the purpose of carrying this resolution into effect." Christian Schussel created the original design identical to the design approved by the Navy, with the exception of the laurel and oak. Anthony C. Pacquot engraved the Medal. The Medal had a star with five points, each tipped with trefoils and centered with a crown of laurel and oak. There was a band of 34 stars representing the number of States in 1862 in the middle. Minerva, personifying the United States, stands with a left hand resting on fasces and right hand holding a shield blazoned with the arms of the United States.
An Act of Congress amended the initial law on 3 March 1863 to extend the provisions of the law to include officers. Misuse by non-military organizations in imitating the ribbon led to a Joint Resolution of Congress, Fifty-Fourth Congress, Sess. I, 2 May 1896 authorizing a change in the design of the ribbon. A bowknot (rosette) was adopted to be worn in place of the medal. The ribbon and bowknot (rosette), legally recognized and prescribed by the President, was communicated in War Department Orders dated 10 November 1896. The design for the current medal was designed by Major General George L. Gillespie and authorized by Congress, 23 April 1904. The medal was worn in precedence to all other military decorations hanging from the neck or pinned over the left breast. In 1944, the current neck ribbon was adopted. It is to be worn outside of the shirt collar and inside the coat, above all other decorations.
02About the Medal of Honor and Special Entitlements
The Army Medal of Honor is a gold star 1 3/8 inches wide surrounded by a green lauren wreath. The star has five points, each tipped with trefoils and is suspended from gold bar bearing the inscription "VALOR", surmounted by an eagle. Minerva's head surrounded by the words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" is in the center of the star. Centered on each ray of the star is a green oak leaf. The reverse side of the cross has a bar engraved "THE CONGRESS TO" and a space is available for the recipient's name.
The current Navy Medal of Honor is a bronze star with five points, each tipped with trefoils and centered with a crown of laurel and oak. Within the crown standing with left hand resting of fasces and a shield blazoned with the shield from the coat of arms of the United States in the right hand is Minerva, a personification of the United States. She is repulsing Discord, which is represented by snakes. The medal is suspended from the flukes of an anchor.
The Air Force Medal of Honor is a gold five-pointed star, one point down, inside a wreath of green laurel. Each point is tipped with trefoils and includes within the background a crown of laurel and oak. An annulet of 34 stars, representing the head of the Statue of Liberty is centered on the star. The star is suspended from a bar and bares the inscription "VALOR" above a rendering of the United States Air Force Coat of Arms thunderbolt.
The Medal of Honor is suspended by a neck ribbon 1 3/8 inches wide, Bluebird color. Above the medal is a shield of bluebird ribbon with thirteen white stars arranged in the form of three chevrons. The service ribbon contains five stars arranged in the form of an "M" and is 1 3/8 inches wide.
(1) Each Medal of Honor awardee may have his name entered on the Medal of Honor Roll ( 38 USC 560 ) thereby qualifying with the Department of Veterans Affairs as having the right to receive a special pension of $400 per month. GUIDE NOTE: The 2008 MOH pension rate is $1,129 per month.
(2) Enlisted Medal of Honor personnel are entitled to a supplemental uniform allowance.
(3) DOD Regulation 4515.13-R provides special rights to air transportation.
(4) Identification card, commissary and exchange privileges for Medal of Honor recipients and their eligible dependents.
(5) Children of recipients are entitled for admission to the U.S. Service Academies without consideration as to the quota requirements.
(6) Title 10, USC 3991, provides for a 10% increase in retired pay.
The Medal of Honor
About the Medal of Honor
An actual citation of the Medal of Honor read by the President of the United States for Army Specialist Salvatore Giunta.
The President of the United States of America, authorized by an Act of Congress, 3 March 1863, has awarded, in the name of Congress, the Medal of Honor to
SPECIALIST SALVATORE AUGUSTINE GIUNTA
UNITED STATES ARMY
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty: Specialist Salvatore A. Giunta distinguished himself conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with an armed enemy in the Korengal Valley, Afghanistan, on October 25, 2007. While conducting a patrol as team leader with Company B, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, Specialist Giunta and his team were navigating through harsh terrain when they were ambushed by a well-armed and well-coordinated insurgent force. While under heavy enemy fire, Specialist Giunta immediately sprinted towards cover and engaged the enemy. Seeing that his squad leader had fallen and believing that he had been injured, Specialist Giunta exposed himself to withering enemy fire and raced towards his squad leader, helped him to cover, and administered medical aid. While administering first aid, enemy fire struck Specialist Giunta's body armor and his secondary weapon. Without regard to the ongoing fire, Specialist Giunta engaged the enemy before prepping and throwing grenades, using the explosions for cover in order to conceal his position. Attempting to reach additional wounded fellow soldiers who were separated from the squad, Specialist Giunta and his team encountered a barrage of enemy fire that forced them to the ground. The team continued forward and upon reaching the wounded soldiers, Specialist Giunta realized that another soldier was still separated from the element. Specialist Giunta then advanced forward on his own initiative. As he crested the top of a hill, he observed two insurgents carrying away an American soldier. He immediately engaged the enemy, killing one and wounding the other. Upon reaching the wounded soldier, he began to provide medical aid, as his squad caught up and provided security. Specialist Giunta's unwavering courage, selflessness, and decisive leadership while under extreme enemy fire were integral to his platoon's ability to defeat an enemy ambush and recover a fellow American soldier from the enemy. Specialist Salvatore A. Giunta's extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Company B, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 503d Infantry Regiment, and the United States Army.
/s/ Barack Obama
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
These are the types of actions of heroism and selflessness that warrant the Congressional Medal of Honor.