Applying To The Coast Guard
Challenges and Benefits In The Coast Guard
As with any military service branch, being selected into the service can be a challenge depending upon the recruit's education, work / language skills, physical abilities, medical condition, and criminal history. The Coast Guard is no different than the other military branches with both the challenges facing new recruits as well as the benefits of being accepted into their ranks.
The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission (with jurisdiction in both domestic and international waters) and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. Currently, the Coast Guard operates under the Department of Homeland Security during peacetime but can be transferred to the Department of the Navy by the President at any time, or by Congress during the time of war. The Coast Guard's enduring roles are maritime safety, security, and stewardship.
To carry out those roles the Coast Guard has 11 statutory missions enforcing U.S. law in the world's largest exclusive economic zone of 3.4 million square miles (8,800,000 km2).
The Coast Guard motto is Semper Paratus, "Always Ready."
History of the Coast Guard
Formerly, the Coast Guard was part of the Department of Transportation, but soon after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the Coast Guard roles were upgraded to a more anti-terrorism and port protection as well as all their other life saving, shipping security, and drug interdiction duties.
As one of the nation's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every war from 1790 to Iraq and Afghanistan. It was officially established as the Revenue Marine by the Continental Congress at the request of Alexander Hamilton. Its first purpose was to collect customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the United States Revenue Cutter Service. The Coast Guard was formed from the merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the United States Life-Saving Service in 1915.
Recruiting Environment for the Coast Guard
The Coast Guard is one of the more difficult branches to join. The Coast Guard has over 35,000 active-duty men and women, over 7,000 Reservists, and over 29,000 Auxiliary personnel, and enlists about 3,000 and 4,000 new recruits per year (compared to the Navy’s 38,400 new recruits per year on average). So, yes, it is ten times more difficult to join the Coast Guard than the Navy just due to pure size and statistics.
The Coast Guard requires a minimum of 54 points on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery test, but you should do better in order to be competitive with fellow recruits. You will need a high school diploma or college. If you have a GED, it is rare to be accepted.
You will have to undergo a credit check and pass a security clearance check. The Coast Guard generally approves the lowest rate of criminal history waivers and medical waivers (in fact, it is the only branch for which shellfish allergies is a non-waiverable condition). They invite prior service applicants with some rules and restrictions.
Coast Guard Enlistment Incentives
The Coast Guard offers a small variety of enlistment incentives to entice qualified applicants to join. They recommend discussing current incentives with a recruiting officer.
The Coast Guard participates in the Post-9/11 GI Bill, which provides up to 36 months of education benefits for 15 years after your release from active duty.
Like the other services, the Coast Guard offers advanced enlistment rank up to E-3, for such things as college credits or JROTC.
Coast Guard Job Opportunities
The Coast Guard has 20 enlisted jobs (called ratings) divided into 4 categories:
- Deck & Ordnance - Maritime Enforcement Specialists (ME), Boatswain's Mate (BM), Gunner’s Mate (GM), Operations Specialist (OS), and Intelligence Specialist (IS).
- Hull and Engineering – Damage Controlman (DC), Electrician’s Mate (EM), Electronics Technician (ET), Information System Technician (IT) and Machinery Technician (MK)
- Aviation – Avionics Electrical Technician (AET), Aviation Maintenance Technician (AMT) and Aviation Survival Technician (AST)
- Administrative & Scientific – Food Service Specialist (FS), Health Services Technician (HS), Marine Science Technician (MST), Musician (MU), Public Affairs Specialist (PA), Storekeeper (SK) and Yeoman (YN)
Coast Guard Basic Training
The Coast Guard only has one location for enlisted basic training: Coast Guard Training Center Cape May in Cape May, New Jersey. The Coast Guard Training Center Cape May processes 3000 to 4000 recruits per year. You should know how to swim prior to joining the Coast Guard.
In order to graduate from Coast Guard basic training, the requirements are:
- Sit-ups: 38 in one minute
- Push-ups: 29 in one minute
- 1.5-mile run: 12:51
- Sit and Reach : 16.50”
- Sit-ups: 32 in one minute
- Push-ups: 15 in one minute
- 1.5-mile run: 15:26
- Sit and Reach: 19.29”
As well, all must be able to jump off a 5-foot platform into the pool, swim 100 meters, and tread water for five minutes.
Specialized Training Units
Helicopter Rescue Specialist (Search and Rescue Swimmer) that has a much more grueling test and training program to qualify with the additional exercises of pullups, underwater swims, buddy tows, and 500m swims.
Maritime Security Response Team (MSRT) - The MSRT is the SWAT Team of the Coast Guard and the only unit within the Coast Guard that has counterterrorism capabilities. The MSRT is trained in direct action missions and to be the to be the first response to potential or actual terrorist threats. A similar test with higher standards are required for the MSRT recruits (12 min swim, 1.5 mile run, pushups, situps).
Coast Guard Assignments
The Coast Guard has Installations, Bases, and Air Stations throughout the United States (CONUS) – East Coast, Gulf Coast, Great Lakes and Pacific. Depending upon what type of ship a Coast Guardsman is assigned to, he/she could live on that ship, or on the base, if the ship is not big enough to accompany the crew full time.
Coast Guard personnel work with Assignment Officers to arrange assignments – these individuals are in charge of all assignments for a particular job community and rank (rate) range. Typically, the factors that involve priority of assignments are the following:
- Has the individual previously been assigned to a sea duty position as a rated individual
- Has the individual been in the same geographic area
- What is the individual’s rank
However, some ratings have a sea time requirement for advancement (your recruiter should have a list of which ratings require sea time). As well, like the rest of the branches, the Coast Guard has overseas assignments and special assignments (such as recruiting).
Coast Guard Deployments
The vast majority of Coast Guard deployments are at sea on Coast Guard ships. Just as with the Navy, if you don't want to deploy on ships or submarines, don't join the Coast Guard. Like the Navy, the larger ships are small cities and can deploy overseas. For instance, during the Iraq War, there were cutters assigned to the Persian Gulf. Their mission: port and harbor and waterway security.
As with members of the other Reserve Components, Coast Guard men and women are subject to involuntary mobilization under Title 10 for national security contingencies. However, unlike members of the other Reserve Components, Coast Guard Reservists can also be involuntarily mobilized for up to 60 days at a time for domestic contingencies, including natural disasters and terrorist attacks. For example, the Coast Guard mobilized approximately 700 reservists for Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.
Promotions in the Coast Guard
Individuals enlisting in the Coast Guard can receive advanced promotion, up to the rank (rate) of Seaman (E-3), for such things as college credits, JROTC, Eagle Scout, Civil Air Patrol, etc. Coast Guard Enlisted are promoted to E-2 after the completion of boot camp, and while advancement to E-3 is virtually automatic, an E-2 is required to certain Performance Qualifications and Nonresident Exams prior to being declared eligible. In addition, members must have their CO's approval and 6 months time-in-grade (TIG) or have completed technical training - "A" School - to qualify for E-3.
(in some cases you may also be eligible to advance to E-3 upon graduation from boot camp based on either enlisting for 6 years, or prior military experience.)
In addition, some ratings have a sea time requirement for advancement – meaning that they must have served on a ship for a specific amount of time in one pay grade before they may be eligible to advance to the next paygrade.
Educational Opportunities in the Coast Guard
Like all of the services, when you are off-duty, you can take college courses on campuses close to the base you are assigned to, or take advantage of courses offered on-base through the base education offices. Courses offered on-base are by actual colleges and universities, that are considered "military friendly," in that they generally give credit for military training, and usually have liberal credit transfer policies.
Enlisted Commissioning Programs in the Coast Guard
Like the other services, the Coast Guard offers a chance for qualified enlisted sailors to finish college and earn a commission as a Coast Guard Officer. The advancement programs can change over time as they need more or fewer of different officer specialties. Like the other services, enlisted members can apply to become Warrant Officers, Get commissioned into Engineering Duty Officers, attend Officer Candidate School, become Physician Assistants, Aviators, as well as Coast Guard Reserves Direct Commission programs.