What Exactly Is a PSA (Public Service Announcement)?
You May Know Them as PSAs, But What Defines Them?
Public Service Announcements, also known as PSAs, go by many names. In the US, they are known as Public Service Announcements and are handled by the Ad Council. And in Hong Kong, they are known as Announcements in the Public Interest or APIs. In the UK, they are called Public Information Films, and some of them have become famous (one, in particular, Charlie Says, was sampled by the techno group The Prodigy).
Unlike traditional commercials, Public Service Announcements (PSA) are primarily designed to inform and educate rather than sell a product or service. They have been around for decades, with the first ones being shown before the Second World War.
During the war, many PSAawere issued, often citing the need to be vigilant, and support the war effort in every way possible. "Loose lips sink ships" is the kind of message PSAs would air. Over the years, PSAs evolved to cover a vast array of public interests, and are still around to this day.
The goal of a PSA is not to make a big sale, but rather to change public opinion and raise awareness for a problem. The strategy here is to educate first and provoke a feeling and reaction after that. However, sometimes money is solicited, although usually not for profit.
Topics Covered by Public Service Ads
As long as there have been advertisements, there have been ads for charitable causes, government issues (including war), politics, religion and health & safety issues. A typical PSA will be for the latter, with topics including:
- Drinking and Driving
- Texting and Driving
- Drug Addiction
- Safe Sex
PSAs can be seen anywhere traditional ads are seen, including television and radio, outdoor, online, direct mail and in print. Due to the nature of the ads, many insertions are provided at a discount.
The leading producer of these PSAs in America today is The Ad Council. Initially called the War Advertising Council, it is responsible for the content and frequency of the ads that air. At one point, broadcast stations were obligated to provide this advertising space free of charge, but that was ended when deregulation was introduced in the 80s.
However, arguably the most well-known and controversial PSAs of the last decade have come not from The Ad Council, but from Truth (masterminded by CP&B). Their guerrilla-style ads and controversial street demonstrations have cut through the clutter to create a powerful message about the dangers of smoking. Truth advertisements are intended to be shocking, often using the "sledgehammer" approach to facts, but hitting people over the head with information that cannot be ignored.
Most recently, texting and driving ads have become the most hard-hitting. The problem is something of an epidemic, with 1 in 4 car accidents now being caused by texting and driving in the USA.
The Fine Line Between Public Information and Propaganda
Propaganda also comes under the guise of PSA, and although the word has a very negative term these days, it really did start out as neutral information.
It could be argued that the Rock The Vote campaign was a form of propaganda, as many of the artists involved were Democrats. The real propaganda though, in the negative sense, is seen not on American airwaves but in places where there is, or was, a fascist dictator in power. The PSAs put out by Hitler and Goebbels leading up to, and including, the 2nd World War were masterful pieces of misinformation and mind control.
Kim Jong-il is keeping that tradition alive, filling the North Korean airwaves, streets and printed materials with pure works of political fiction.
Although PSAs often get confused with Public Relations, there is a significant difference between the two. While PR can be used to help spread the word about non-profits, PR is widely used by every other form of commercial advertising.
Examples of Public Service Announcements
Literally, thousands of PSAs have been developed over the years, and it would be impossible to cover even a fraction of them here. But, some messages have stood the test of time, even if the style and content is a little dated. Here are five that stand out:
- I Learned It From Watching You: A dad comes into his teen son's bedroom and starts interrogating him about the drugs that he's found. At first, the teen is reluctant to tell him where he got the idea from. It seems like he's covering for his friends. Then, the bombshell comes out - "I learned it from watching you." A harsh reminder that adults that use drugs will influence their kids' behavior.
- Don't Die of Ignorance: Another from the 1980s, this time for an epidemic that had gripped the word with fear. It was called A.I.D.S., and as kids and adults alike were educated on TV, the PSAs got more scary and shocking. Perhaps the greatest of these was from the UK. Entitled, "Don't Die of Ignorance," the enormous gravestone sent shivers down every spine. John Hurt did the VO.
- Keep America Beautiful: An ad so famous, it was parodied in the smash hit film Wayne's World 2. You know it, even if you weren't actually around for the original airing. In this TV and print campaign, the focus is on a Native American in the wilderness, and the damage he sees being done to nature from littering and pollution. The iconic "crying Indian" was born from this campaign.
- Brain on Drugs: Heroin is nothing to mess around with, and this ad proved that in the most shocking way. An egg is pounded by a cast iron skillet, followed by the rest of the kitchen. The girl holding the skillet was Rachel Leigh Cook, who recently helped revive the campaign for an update on the current drug policy in America. It's just as memorable.
- Friends Don't Let Friends Drive Drunk: A truly innovative approach to the drinking and driving problem, this strategy was clear, and it worked. People who have been drinking don't make smart choices. But their friends, if they're clear-headed, are culpable if they let their drunk friends get behind the wheel. This prevented thousands of deaths.