There are a lot of reasons a manager might decline to give you a reference, and not all of them mean that you’ve alienated your soon-to-be former boss. For example, it’s not unusual for companies to have a human resources (HR) policy of only confirming job titles, dates of employment, and salary.
Then again, there are times when you and a manager just don’t hit it off. In this case, your manager declining to recommend you is actually the best thing that could happen to you.
There’s nothing worse than a negative statement from a professional reference, and a less-than-enthusiastic endorsement is only slightly less helpful. In any case, if you ask for a reference and your boss says no, consider that they did you a favor.
Regardless of why your manager won’t give you a reference, the important move for your career is to find substitute references, so that you can prove to a prospective employer that you’re someone people will vouch for.
Who to Use as a Reference
Most employers will want a few professional references, but it helps to also line up some personal references. Keep in mind that in most cases, a letter won't suffice. The company will have specific questions they will want to ask and, if the company does check references, it will probably be over the phone.
Always look for opportunities to add new personal and professional references to your contact list. These people have given you consistent positive feedback and are happy to share this information with others who may be equally impressed.
Line Up Substitute References
A vague recommendation from someone who barely knows you won’t be persuasive to a prospective employer. It is also not a good idea to rely too heavily on your current supervisor for a recommendation.
A better career strategy is to always have a few reliable professional and personal references on hand for future interviews. These people should be prepared and willing to provide phone references, as well as written references on your personal character, as well as your professional skills and qualifications. Having a few great references can help pave the way to your next job.
Employers want to understand the quality of your work and your ability to achieve results. As such, professional references should be anyone who can attest to your work, such as:
- Current or former boss
- Coworkers, either at your current job or previous jobs
- People who report to you, either now or in previous roles
- Clients or vendors
- Professors or academic advisers from college—but only if you’re a recent graduate
- Volunteer coordinators
Keep in mind that these individuals should be able to make the case that you’re mature, responsible, skilled, and someone who solves problems quickly, works well with others, and thinks on their feet. The exact qualities, of course, will depend on the role. But your reference should be able to make the case that you have them. In other words, the person giving you a reference needs to have seen you in action and be able to convey their positive impression to a hiring manager.
When you ask a prospective reference to speak for you, it’s useful to provide them with a brief overview of the role and to explain what’s most important, so they can tailor their responses accordingly while still being truthful.
Personal references are testaments to your character rather than your professional aptitude. They’re likely to be less sought-after by employers but may be valuable in addition to professional references.
If you need security clearance or are looking to get hired at a company with an extensive background check, however, personal references may be encouraged or even required, in addition to professional references. Possible personal references include:
- Roommates, neighbors, and friends
- Members of your house of worship
- Anyone who’s belonged to a club or civic organization while you were an active member
- Former or current coaches
- Professors or academic advisers from college
Who Not To Ask for a Reference
Don’t ask a family member or spouse. Employers will assume that your close family will have something positive to say about you, so their endorsement won’t carry much weight. Also, avoid asking anyone with whom you share only a casual acquaintance. Remember that this person should be able to convincingly attest to your character and good personal qualities, which requires them to know you fairly well.
Employers who look for personal references want to know who you really are in terms of your personality as well as your values and beliefs. This helps them determine if you have the qualities required to do the job as well as fit within their work culture.
- Managers decline to give references for many reasons, including HR policies that prohibit detailed references.
- Always line up substitute references, especially from professional contacts who can attest to the quality of your work.
- In some cases, you may also want to secure personal references from connections who can vouch for your character.
- Never ask family members to provide personal or professional references; employers will assume that they have only positive things to say.