It can seem like forever between the time you submit a job application and when you finally receive a response, particularly with government jobs. This happens because there are many steps in the government hiring process and there's generally no set deadline or time by which this entire process takes. The waiting period from applying to receiving a final answer depends on several factors, but if you hear nothing after a really extended period of time, it means you most likely aren't in consideration for the job.
Is It a Vacant Position?
Whether the position is currently vacant or is expected to become vacant in the near future can have a significant effect on the time frame. The agency has an incentive to speed up the process when it's attempting to fill a vacant position. It has more time to sift through applications if that's not the case and it knows well in advance that an employee is leaving.
The Organization Wants to Be Thorough
The organization also has an incentive to adequate review each and every candidate, which can slow down the process, particularly during times of high unemployment and numerous applications are received.
It can take a long time to correct the situation if the person who's hired turns out to be a poor fit, especially in government where agencies protect employees from unfair personnel actions. Many agencies take the position that it's better to take plenty of time for review in the beginning rather than spend even more time straightening out a mistake later.
Making It Past the First Screening
It could be only a week or two after the application closing date that you get a rejection letter if you're screened out of the selection process when the agency's human resources department reviews all applications for minimum requirements. The good news is that you generally receive this news relatively quickly, so take heart if you're still waiting after a couple of weeks...although not much longer than that.
A Month of Silence
If you don’t hear back after a month, you can most likely forget about that job. The agency could be interviewing other candidates and might notify all applicants that they weren't selected after they choose the new hire. But don't delete electronic copies of the application materials you sent because there's still a slight chance that you’re in the running—you might be next on the list if the people ahead of you don't work out.
If You're a Finalist
If you're selected as a finalist, you should hear back within about three weeks to set up an interview. You should hear back on the agency's final selection within another week or two after the interview. This timeline might be stretched out quite a bit, however, if the agency offers the job to someone else and that candidate winds up rejecting the offer. If you get a job offer after waiting for about a month or so after the interview, this is likely what happened.