How to Get Working Papers for Minors
Working papers are legal documents that certify a minor (someone under 18) can be employed and are categorized into two types: employment certification and age certification.
No federal requirements mandate that minors get working papers before starting employment, but some states require them.
What is the Minimum Age for Work?
The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) states that 14 is the minimum age for most (non-agricultural) work. Exceptions include jobs such as babysitting, chores, delivering newspapers, and a few others. There are also limits to the number of hours per week you can work based on your age.
The FLSA also bans minors from certain occupations considered hazardous, such as coal mining, using balers and compactors, roofing work, operating certain power-driving machines, and more.
Additionally, many states have their own child labor laws with higher minimum ages than the FLSA. In these cases, the higher minimum age always applies. Consult your state department of labor for more information about child labor laws in your area.
Do I Need Working Papers?
Some states require working papers for those younger than 16, while others require them for anyone younger than 18. Some states don't require them at all.
The best place to find out if you need working papers is your school guidance office. If you need working papers, the counselors can give you the form you will need to complete or tell you where to get it.
How to Get Working Papers
If you find out you need working papers, you can get these from your school guidance office. You also can get them through your state department of labor by visiting the office, searching on the website, or calling or emailing the office.
This list of State Labor Laws: Employment/Age Certificates explains whether or not your state requires certification and if you can get that certification from your school, your state department of labor, or both.
What Information Will I Need to Give?
Requirements vary from state to state, but in general, here's what you will need to do to get working papers and to get them approved:
- Obtain working papers/certificate application from your school or state department of labor.
- Obtain a certificate of physical fitness from your doctor. You may need to have had a physical within the last year.
- Bring the completed application with proof of age (copy of birth certificate, a school record, school identification, driver's license, or another document that lists your age) to either your school or state department of labor.
- A parent or guardian probably will need to come with you to submit the papers and sign the application. They also may need to come to obtain the papers.
- Each certificate varies, but generally, you will be asked to give information such as your full name, date of birth, grade completed, and your parents’/guardians’ names.
- Often, the certificate will expire after a certain period of time. For example, most are valid for about one year.
- If you lose your working papers, you can request a duplicate copy from the office that issued it.
Tips for Working Minors
- Learn about the labor laws and restrictions that apply to you, given your age, the type of job you’re seeking, and the geographic area in which you’re working. For example, workers aged 14 or 15 are limited to 18 hours of work per week, per federal law. And all workers under the age of 18 are forbidden from working with hazardous chemicals.
- Be a savvy job seeker. There are a lot of scams out there and a lot of lousy employers. To avoid both, do your research before interviewing or committing to a job. See if there are complaints against the company with the Better Business Bureau, for example. Talk to current and former employees to see if they have a good reputation in your community. Above all, remember: if it sounds too good to be true, it probably is. No one makes thousands of dollars of week by stuffing envelopes or assembling kits, to name a few examples of common job scams.
- Be realistic about time commitments. Regardless of your plans after graduation, your first responsibility as a young worker is to your schoolwork. Don’t take on more work than you can reasonably balance with your commitment to school. It’s unlikely that your part-time job in high school will turn into your full-time career after graduation. So, don’t endanger your grades by overcommitting to work.